Detailed sheets

The furnace

A kiln for firing clay artefacts was found (fig. 1) to the west of the complex called Lu Palatzu of Baldu, not far from the church of Santo Stefano.

Fig. 1 - Luogosanto, area of Santu Stevanu: the furnace during the excavations (from Pinna 2008, p. 120).

The residual structures, dug layer by layer, refer to the cooking chamber: this consists of a circular chamber, made of small local stones held together by a mixture of clay except for some parts, which require the use of bricks; the north wall rested onto bedrock. Thanks to archaeological excavations, parts of the clay cooktop were brought to light. The kiln was used to produce clay-bricks used for the roofs of the Baldu complex and perhaps for ceramic ones also: various types of waste have been identified in the strata accumulated near the workshop, particularly relating to roof tiles and tiles deformed during firing (fig. 2).

Fig. 2 - Palace of Baldu, warped bricks, fused together during firing (from PINNA, CORDA a c.d.s., p. 152 fig. 10).

The processing plant proves crucial for understanding the productive activities in the area: in this case production appears to be related to the construction and maintenance work of the complex, and maybe of the village of Santo Stefano.

The furnaces could be circular or square with two superimposed chambers: the fire was lit in the bottom one (heating chamber), which was partially underground or on the ground, while the raw artefacts were placed in the upper one (firing chamber). The latter was entirely closed with bricks after being filled (figs. 3-4).

Fig. 3 - RVirtual reconstruction of kiln A in Lonato del Garda (from Mibact - Superintendence for the Archaeological Heritage of Lombardy,
Fig. 4 - Reconstruction of a clay-brick kiln (from ADAM 1989, p. 64).



  • P. J. ADAM, L’arte di costruire presso i romani. Materiali e tecniche, Milano 1989, p. 64.
  • F. PINNA, Un villaggio medioevale nel cuore della Gallura, in Almanacco Gallurese, 10, 2002-2003, pp. 77-84.
  • F. PINNA, Organizzazione spaziale e relazioni commerciali di un abitato medievale della Gallura. Nota sugli scavi archeologici nell'area del Palazzo di Baldu (Luogosanto), in Les Habitats insulaires à l’èpoque medievale en Mediterranée, Relation, èchanges, et coopèration en Mediterranée. Actes du 128e Congrés national des sociètès historiques et scientifiques (Bastia, 14-21 aprile 2003), Études Corses, 60, 2005, pp. 85-103.
  • F. PINNA, Archeologia del territorio in Sardegna. La Gallura tra tarda antichità e medioevo, Cagliari 2008, p. 120.
  • F. PINNA, La rete insediativa medievale della Sardegna nord-orientale: stato degli studi, nuovi dati archeologici e prospettive di ricerca, in F. REDI, A. FORGIONE (a cura di), VI Congresso Nazionale di Archeologia Medievale (L'Aquila, 12-15 settembre 2012), Borgo S. Lorenzo 2012, pp. 436-441.
  • F. PINNA, D. CORDA, Scambi e circuiti commerciali nella Sardegna medievale: dati archeologici dal Palazzo di Baldu (Luogosanto, Olbia-Tempio), in Bulletin de la Société des sciences historiques et naturelles de la Corse, 2014, pp. 748-749.
  • F. PINNA, D. MUSIO, Il vetro nella Sardegna medievale: nuovi dati dall'indagine archeologica del Palazzo di Baldu (Luogosanto, OT), in A. COSCARELLA (a cura di), Il vetro in Italia: testimonianze, produzioni, commerci in età bassomedievale. Il vetro in Calabria: vecchie scoperte, nuove acquisizioni, XV Giornate di studio sul vetro AIHV (Arcavacata di Rende, 9-11 giugno 2011), Arcavacata di Rende 2012, pp. pp. 315-329.